Lowenthal, P. R. (2010). Social presence. In S. Dasgupta (Ed.), Social computing: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications (pp. 129-136). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. *Reprint
Learning is a social process (Harasim, 2002; Swan & Shea, 2005; Tu, 2000). Discourse plays a key role in the social process of learning (Harasim, 2002). Therefore, it is extremely important that we understand how students and teachers socially interact in online courses where asynchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) is the major form of discourse. Theories of social presence help explain how students and teachers interact and learn online.
Keywords: Social presence, online learning, computer-mediated communication, discourse, richness, intimacy, immediacy